What Is Home Compost? How to Start Composting at Home

Many people are beginning to recognize the importance of reducing their carbon footprint and embracing sustainable practices, and starting a home compost bin is an excellent way to contribute to this movement. 

Moreover, by creating your compost at home, you’ll have access to high-quality fertilizer without relying on store-bought chemical products. 

In this article, we’ll discuss the fundamentals of home composting and provide practical tips on starting your composting journey right in your backyard or even inside your apartment! 

Whether you’re a gardening enthusiast looking for organic ways to boost plant growth or want to reduce food waste while helping the environment, learning how to start composting at home could be beneficial and fulfilling.

What Is Home Composting?

Home composting is a sustainable method of recycling organic materials like food scraps and yard trash to produce nutrient-rich soil. 

Using natural breakdown processes, composting at home can drastically reduce the quantity of organic waste dumped in landfills, where toxic greenhouse gases are released.

In addition to reducing trash, this green method creates a sustainable substitute for chemical fertilizers in gardening and landscaping.

The capacity of home composting to feed the soil with necessary nutrients, enhancing its fertility and structure, is one of its main advantages. Furthermore, the procedure aids in retaining soil moisture, which lessens the need for frequent watering and enhances plant health. 

It’s important to remember that home composting is an easy but efficient option for people to support environmental conservation initiatives while also benefiting from lower costs and better outdoor areas. 

Several home composting techniques can accommodate a range of living situations and tastes, regardless of the size of your backyard or balcony.

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What is Compost Used For?

Compost, often referred to as black gold in the gardening world, is a nutrient-rich soil amendment with many uses. One of the primary uses of compost is as a natural fertilizer for gardens and agricultural fields.

Its rich organic matter improves soil structure, promotes microbial activity, and enhances plant nutrient availability, leading to healthier and more productive growth.

Aside from its role in nourishing plants, compost also serves as an effective mulch to suppress weeds and retain moisture in the soil.

This helps reduce the need for synthetic herbicides and irrigation while maintaining a healthy environment for plant roots.

In addition to these horticultural benefits, compost can be utilized for erosion control in various landscaping applications. Its ability to stabilize soil structure minimizes runoff and helps prevent soil loss in slopes or disturbed areas.

Benefits of Composting

Composting at home is an easy yet effective process with many advantages, making it a gratifying and environmentally responsible undertaking. We nourish our gardens and promote a healthy planet by turning organic waste into nutrient-rich compost. Here’s a closer look at the many benefits of composting at home:

1. Decreases Waste and Impact on the Environment

By keeping organic waste out of landfills, composting reduces the amount of methane—a potent greenhouse gas—that is released. We actively lessen our carbon footprint and slow climate change by composting, as landfills are one of the main causes of global warming.

2. Develop healthy Plants and Soil

Compost is a naturally occurring soil supplement that strengthens soil structure, increases water retention, and supplies vital nutrients. Plant growth depends on healthy soil; compost creates the perfect environment for productive gardens.

3. Steps Down on Chemical Fertilizer Usage

Using artificial chemical fertilizers is decreased by compost, which functions as a natural fertilizer. Compost is an environmentally beneficial substitute for these fertilizers that feed plants without endangering the ecosystem and contaminating groundwater.

4. Reduces the Cost of Gardening Expenses:

You may drastically cut down on, or even entirely do away with, the need for pricey commercial fertilizers and soil nutrients by making your compost. Composting the waste is one economical method of keeping a garden productive and healthy.

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5. Supports Environmental Awareness and Sustainable Living

Composting at home promotes resource management with mindfulness and strengthens ties to the natural world. It increases awareness of the value of waste reduction and environmental stewardship and encourages sustainable living behaviours.

6. Offers Nutrient-Rich Compost for a Range of Applications

Beyond gardening, compost can be utilized for a multitude of reasons. It can be added to the soil for potted plants, used as a mulch to keep weeds out of the way and preserve soil moisture, or even utilized as a component of handmade potting mixes.

7. Promote a Healthy Ecosystem in Your Yard:

Earthworms and beneficial bacteria are among the useful soil creatures that compost draws in and are essential to the health of the soil and the growth of plants. A robust ecosystem guarantees your garden’s long-term sustainability and productivity.

8. Decreases Food Wastage and Encourages Innovation

Composting reduces food waste and encourages creativity by turning yard trash and food leftovers into valuable materials. It promotes handling food waste and consumption with greater awareness.

9. Establishes Your Independence and foster a Relationship with Nature

You can manage waste by producing your nutrient-rich soil amendment at home. It enables you to recognize the cyclical cycle of life and establish a connection with the natural decay processes.

10. Imparts a Sense of Achievement and Enhances Your Gardening Experience:

Making your compost makes you feel satisfied and accomplished. Seeing organic waste become nutrient-rich compost is a satisfying sight that makes gardening even more enjoyable.

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How to Start Composting at Home

Here’s a step-by-step guide to get you started:

Step 1: Choose a Composting Method

Select a composting method that suits your space, preferences, and lifestyle. Options include:

  1. Bin composting: Utilizes a designated compost bin or container to collect and break down organic materials.
  2. Pile composting: Creates a heap of organic materials on the ground, allowing decomposition to occur in an open-air setting.
  3. Worm composting (vermicomposting): Employs worms to break down organic matter in a contained bin, producing nutrient-rich worm castings.

Step 2: Select a Composting Location

Choose a shaded, well-drained, accessible location for your compost bin or pile. Avoid direct sunlight, which can dry the compost and slow decomposition.

Step 3: Gather Organic Materials

Collect a variety of organic materials to create a balanced compost mix:

• Green materials (nitrogen-rich): Food scraps, yard trimmings, coffee grounds, tea bags

• Brown materials (carbon-rich): Dry leaves, twigs, shredded paper, cardboard

Step 4: Start Your Compost Pile

  1. Layer green and brown materials in your compost bin or pile, maintaining a ratio of 2-3 parts brown materials to 1 part green materials.
  2. Moisten the compost to a sponge-like consistency.
  3. Cover the compost pile with a lid or tarp to prevent excessive moisture loss and deter pests.

Step 5: Monitor and Maintain Your Compost Pile

  1. Turn the compost regularly (every few days) to aerate it and promote decomposition.
  2. Monitor moisture levels and add water if the compost becomes too dry.
  3. Check for signs of imbalance, such as excessive odours or slow decomposition. Adjust the ratio of green and brown materials if necessary.

Tips for Successful Home Composting:

  • Chop or shred larger materials to accelerate decomposition.
  • Avoid adding meat, bones, dairy products, or oily food scraps to prevent unpleasant odors and attract pests.
  • Maintain a balance of green and brown materials for optimal decomposition.
  • Turn the compost regularly to ensure proper aeration and decomposition.
  • Monitor moisture levels and add water if the compost becomes too dry.
  • Be patient; composting takes time, and the rate depends on various factors.

What you can Compost

Here’s a list of what you can compost:

Green materials (nitrogen-rich):

  • Food scraps: Fruits, vegetables, coffee grounds, tea bags, eggshells, coffee filters
  • Yard trimmings: Grass clippings, leaves, twigs, shredded branches
  • Manures: From herbivores like cows, horses, rabbits
  • Sawdust: From untreated wood
  • Manure from chicken, duck, geese, quail

Brown materials (carbon-rich):

  • Dry leaves, twigs, shredded paper, cardboard
  • Shredded newspaper and cardboard
  • Shredded paper towels and napkins
  • Shredded wood chips

Other compostable materials:

  • Dried herbs and flowers
  • Tea bags and coffee filters
  • Eggshells
  • Shredded pine needles
  • Shredded bark

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What not to compost:

There are a few things that you should not compost, as they can harm your compost pile or attract pests. These include:

  • Meat, bones, and dairy products: These materials can attract pests and create unpleasant odors. They can also decompose anaerobically, which produces ammonia and other harmful gases.
  • Grease and oil: These materials can hinder decomposition and make the compost greasy. They can also attract pests and clog your compost bin.
  • Weeds with seeds: If you compost weeds with seeds, the seeds will not die in the compost pile and can re-grow in your garden. To prevent this, remove the seeds from the weeds before composting them.
  • Pathogens: Do not compost yard waste from areas where pets or livestock have been. This can introduce pathogens into your compost pile that could harm your plants.
  • Diseased plants: Do not compost plants that are infected with diseases. This can spread the disease to other plants in your garden.
  • Chemically treated plants: Do not compost plants treated with herbicides or pesticides. These chemicals can leach into the compost and harm your plants.
  • Non-organic materials: Do not compost materials such as plastic, metal, and glass. These materials will not decompose in the compost pile and can damage your bin.

By avoiding these materials, you can create a healthy and productive compost pile that will benefit your garden for years.

Here is a table summarizing what to compost and what not to compost:

ItemCompostableNot Compostable
Food scrapsYesMeat, bones, dairy products, grease, oil
Yard trimmingsYesWeeds with seeds, pathogens, diseased plants, chemically treated plants
ManuresYesNon-organic materials
SawdustYesPine needles, shredded bark
Dried herbs and flowersYesTea bags, coffee filters, eggshells

Maintaining Your Compost Pile

Maintaining your compost pile is essential to ensure it breaks down properly and produces nutrient-rich compost for your garden. Here are some key steps to maintaining a healthy compost pile:

1. Turning and Aeration:

Regularly turning your compost pile is crucial for proper aeration. This process allows oxygen to reach the decomposing materials, promoting the growth of beneficial microorganisms and accelerating decomposition. Aim to turn your compost pile every few days or at least once a week.

2. Moisture Management:

Maintaining the right moisture level is essential for optimal decomposition. The compost pile should feel like a wrung-out sponge, neither too wet nor too dry.

If the compost is too dry, add water to moisten it. Conversely, if the compost is too wet, add more brown materials to absorb excess moisture.

3. Balance of Green and Brown Materials:

A healthy compost pile requires a balanced mix of green (nitrogen-rich) and brown (carbon-rich) materials.

Green materials provide energy for the decomposing microorganisms, while brown materials provide structure and absorb moisture. Aim for a ratio of 2-3 parts brown materials to 1 part green materials.

4. Monitoring and Adjustment:

Regularly monitor your compost pile for any signs of imbalance or issues. If the compost emits unpleasant odours, it may indicate an imbalance or lack of aeration.

Adjust the green and brown material ratio or add more water if the decomposition process is slow.

5. Pest Control:

Compost piles can attract pests like fruit flies and gnats. To minimize pest problems, ensure your compost pile is not too wet or acidic. Cover the pile loosely with a tarp or mesh to keep pests out.

6. Harvesting Compost:

Once your compost has turned into a dark, crumbly material with an earthy smell, it is ready to be harvested. This typically takes 3-6 months, depending on the materials, composting method, and conditions.

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1. What is home compost?

Home composting refers to converting organic waste from your kitchen and garden into nutrient-rich soil amendments.

2. Why should I start composting at home?

Composting at home reduces waste sent to landfills, enriches soil, and promotes a more sustainable lifestyle.

3. What can I put in my home compost bin?

You can compost fruit and vegetable scraps, coffee grounds, eggshells, yard trimmings, and other organic materials.

4. How do I start composting at home?

To start composting at home, you’ll need a bin or pile, a mix of green and brown materials, air circulation, moisture control, and regular turning or mixing.

5. Can I use paper products in my home compost?

You can include shredded paper, cardboard, and newspaper in your home compost as brown materials.


Home composting is a simple and effective way to reduce waste, enrich soil, and contribute to a more sustainable environment. By diverting food scraps and yard waste from landfills, you can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote a circular economy. Starting composting at home requires minimal effort and can be tailored to fit any living situation, whether you have a large backyard or live in an urban apartment. With the right knowledge and commitment, anyone can successfully implement a home composting system and reap the benefits of nutrient-rich soil for gardening or landscaping projects.



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